THE INTEGRATION OF GOVERNMENT SERVICES
Prepared by Daniel Brassard
Science and Technology Division
TABLE OF CONTENTS
C. Government Investment in IT
D. Examples of IT Initiatives
A. Chief Informatics Officer
B. Overview of the Government's Blueprint
C. Illustrations of Future Services
THE GOVERNMENT HOPES TO MAKE IT HAPPEN
A. Implementation Problems
B. Areas of Action
Bringing the Information Age to Canadians
Modernizing the Government's Internal Administration
Creating an Electronic Information Infrastructure
A. Potential Benefits
B. Potential Pitfalls
THE INTEGRATION OF GOVERNMENT SERVICES
federal government has been using information technology (IT) for several
decades in ways that have evolved in step with the underlying technology.
Initially limited to scientific and engineering applications, IT is now
found in most offices. Many would consider the changes made to date as
impressive, but they pale before the magnitude of those the government
will be implementing in the future.
improve the way it serves the public and to maximize the use of IT, the
government has been taking some progressive initiatives. The most recent
and ambitious was the release, on 22 March 1994, of a discussion paper
entitled "Blueprint for Renewing Government Services Using Information
Technology" ("the Blueprint").(1) Copies of this document were distributed for review to
provincial governments, industry, and federal government departments and
agencies, with replies requested prior to 31 May 1994. The President of
Treasury Board, Mr. Eggleton, also invited public participation in the
paper will provide a broad overview of the evolving use of IT in the federal
government as well as some of its likely future applications and their
possible impact on the Canadian public and federal public servants.
are, by their very nature, information-intensive. They require vast amounts
of data to deliver family allowances, pensions and unemployment insurance,
as well as health, safety and security services. The federal government
also depends on increasingly complex information systems to support programs
for taxation, scientific research and statistics. Some of the information
dealing with business and private citizens needs to be coordinated with
that of provincial and foreign governments.
IT in the federal government has been related to the automation of clerical
operations; a large percentage of expenditures on IT remain dedicated
to operating and maintaining these older systems. The commitment of resources
for maintaining these, however, has come to be recognized as restricting
their modernization and the development of new applications.
technological advances in information management systems have dramatically
reduced their cost while increasing their efficiency and effectiveness.
Information can now be captured, stored, managed and distributed more
effectively than ever before. Fast, accurate access to information enhances
service to clients and results in better decisions. The challenge for
the government is to take advantage of the improvements offered by the
in 1991, microcomputers were being used by more than one in every three
government employees.(3) The networks linking these computers are
expanding very rapidly and being connected to larger networks that can
include entire departments. In general, program operations and service
delivery are becoming increasingly dependent on IT.
initial plan for government activities, "The Information Management
Policy Overview, Strategic Direction in Information Technology Management
in the Government of Canada," was issued in 1987. Approved in 1989
was a policy governing the management of government information holdings
and in 1990 a policy governing the management of IT. These policies were
designed to promote the use of information and technology as strategic
tools and to set the climate for change. At the same time, the Treasury
Board approved the coordinated management of all information-based resources.
The stated objectives of the government are increased productivity, better
program delivery, enhanced service to the public and a modern Public Service,
all to be achieved by improving information management processes and the
use of IT.(4) Full implementation in
all departments and agencies will probably take to the end of the decade.
1993, the position of the Chief Informatics Officer was established as
the focus for this change within the federal government. The feedback
on the 1994 Blueprint has been very positive and Treasury Board now anticipates
a large number of departmental initiatives.
C. Government Investment
federal government aims to apply IT to improve its service and to increase
productivity. To this end, from 1986 to 1992, the government spent $11
billion to acquire IT goods and services from the private sector.(5)
Treasury Board Secretariat estimates that the direct spending on IT-related
activities is over $3 billion annually; this sum includes combined salaries
exceeding $1 billion for over 20,000 people. These people develop, install,
maintain and manage over 200,000 workstations, more than 500 mini- and
mainframe computers, a multitude of different computer-based administrative
and financial systems, and hundreds of IT projects.(6) The full operating costs (excluding personnel costs) constitute
approximately 12% of total government expenditures. Although operational
budgets are stable or decreasing, expenditures for IT were rising by about
12% each year.(7)
is becoming more and more important in the delivery of programs and services.
According to the annual federal government procurement review published
by Ottawa-based Government Consultants International, data processing
equipment and services became the top procurement category in 1989-90
and retained that position in 1990-91. Information systems companies now
account for four of the top 25 positions in the list of vendors to Government
D. Examples of IT Initiatives
basic office automation accounts for a large portion of expenditures on
IT, more global or system approaches are emerging in various government
departments. Some examples of initiatives are described below.
Canada Taxation envisages increased electronic interaction with
taxpayers, financial institutions, other government agencies and
the private sector. The aim is to increase productivity, reduce
the paper burden, improve and expand taxpayer service, and provide
greater access to information. The department has established teams
to research some enabling technologies, including expert systems,
voice technologies, video-text systems, imaging, optical storage,
electronic data interchange, electronic funds transfer and office
automation, and to identify areas for their use.(9)
Canadian Patent Office formerly had a lengthy, paper-bound process
for granting patents. Rather than merely automating the existing
process, the Patents Office redefined its business. It intends to
change from an office providing title-searching only into a patent
information service. The documentation forming a patent application
will be accessible to the public from an image database. The information
will be used by industry and others to search for existing solutions
that they can license rather than incurring the cost of developing
a new solution or duplicating an existing one.(10)
Resources Development Canada has the Income Security Program Redesign
project for income security recipients. This project aims to improve
turnaround in applications for Canada Pension or Old Age Security
and is one of the largest redesign projects under way in government.
Specific objectives of the redesign are maintenance and improvement
of client services, security and accuracy of information, flexibility
and responsiveness of program delivery processes, and operational
efficiency. The redesign involves people, organizations, structures,
processes, systems and communications. Only 30% of the costs for
this change are technology-related. Management of this project is
particularly concerned with client outcomes, doing it right the
first time, providing good client service and ensuring that the
right tools are in place to do the job. The 1994 Auditor General's
Report praised this project for its "people management."(11)
government disseminates information to the public via publications,
discussion papers and other documents. These traditional means are
now being enhanced by electronic formats. The Treasury Board Secretariat
produces a database of government information holdings called InfoSource.
This is available at 7,000 public access points and is now accessible
electronically through a private-sector information-service company.
Through InfoSource, the public can find federal government information
from across the country.(12)
government-wide project led by the Office of Information Management,
Systems and Technology, Administrative Renewal Division, is re-engineering
the government pay and benefits process for government employees.
Over 4,600 employees are involved in pay and benefits administration
at hundreds of sites across the country. It is estimated that re-engineering
these processes will produce a permanent reduction in current costs
and could yield cumulative savings over five years of roughly $124
government is examining the development of an integrated communication
infrastructure that would use a series of standards. The Treasury
Board Secretariat is coordinating this initiative, which could effectively
integrate government activities in terms of electronic mail distribution,
data transfer and, eventually, integrated applications.(14)
key elements make up the core of the government's plans for using IT.
First is establishment of the Chief Informatics Officer. Second is the
major initiative begun last spring with the dissemination of a major blueprint
for stimulating such changes.
A. Chief Informatics Officer
Chief Informatics Officer (CIO) for the federal government, Andy MacDonald,
serves as the central focal point for using information management and
technology to increase productivity in delivering government services
and reducing the cost of government administration. The CIO facilitates
and coordinates information systems and technology development in departments
and in government-wide processes such as personnel, finance and material
management. The objectives are to reduce costs while maintaining (and
in some cases improving) services to Canadians.
B. Overview of the Government's
March 1994, Treasury Board circulated a comprehensive draft discussion
paper reviewing the principles for making major changes in the way government
services are provided. The paper includes input from the major stakeholders
and discusses management of change within the government over the next
five years. It is important to note that the Blueprint provides guidance
only. Following is an overview of the main areas discussed.
the Foreword of the Blueprint, the CIO and the Secretary of the Treasury
Board introduced the initiative as follows:
"Blueprint for Renewing Government Services Using Information
Technology" proposes a vision of affordable, accessible and
responsive federal government services and an integrated approach
to help achieve this vision.
Blueprint takes a fresh, enterprise-wide look at government services
using a client focus. It recommends creating, managing, and prudently
sharing information electronically among departments and their different
services in a way which protects the security and privacy of the
information. It envisages the use of a government-wide electronic
information infrastructure to simplify service delivery, reduce
duplication, and improve the level and speed of service to clients
at a lower cost to the taxpayers.
Blueprint emphasizes the critical importance of employees. Their
involvement and commitment are essential to successful business
renewal. In this vein, information technology will be applied in
a manner to improve the "human face of government" as
well as the efficiency and affordability of service delivery."(15)
Blueprint did not discuss any problems that might arise from this vision,
and their impacts on the public and public servants.
examples of scenarios of future delivery of government services, the Blueprint
A client's own computer system would generate a service request and
the supplier's system would provide a response.
(electronic). Individual Canadians, businesses or public servants
would use desktop computer workstations to access information and
to generate transactions, orders and payments.
(walk-in). Clients would seek information, goods and services
by visiting common walk-in centres, where public servants use computerized
services to respond.
with On-site Support. An intermediary group or agency would provide
multiple services, sometimes for numerous clients.
Service Centre. Internal and external clients would access "experts"
in government directly and quickly via computer connectivity technology.
Interface (extended enterprise). Suppliers and internal consumers
would be connected directly to the government's order and payment
systems and thus become an extensions of these systems.
of these scenarios has advantages, depending on the particular service
government views the Blueprint as providing a dynamic and integrated framework
for implementing government service renewal over the next five years.
Critical to its implementation are:
Both ministers and deputy ministers must champion the service
renewal, with the support of the Chief Informatics Officer. An office
within the Treasury Board Secretariat will coordinate implementation
and provide support in business re-engineering and IT architectural
Management. Strategies and plans must be directed towards involving
people in many ways, including the conceptual design and implementation,
and facilitating their shift to the new culture and structures; assessing
the composition and skills of the work force; and resolving the human
resources issues associated with transition and change.
The implementation of the Blueprint will require effective and sustained
cooperation and partnership among staff within departments.
Ahead for Results. Service renewal projects will identify change
management and technology requirements, develop migration plans, and
provide incentive through success. A government-wide electronic information
infrastructure project will support these service renewal projects
as they spread across government.
Implementation. Departments will use the Blueprint in planning
and implementing their own internal renewal activities.
Blueprint has been available for over ten months and most of the initial
phases have already been completed. The initial feedback received by the
coordination staff consisted of over 100 endorsements of the vision and
objective from federal departments, provincial and territorial governments,
the private sector, unions and individuals. Areas seen as requiring more
elaboration were privacy, methods of implementation, and personnel.(16) Some of the main comments on the Blueprint
can be paraphrased as follows:
the business right since technology will follow;
management is essential;
government enterprise network is essential;
and security issues must be carefully addressed; and
must proceed quickly in a coordinated manner.(17)
comments suggested that the government must show results quickly to maintain
momentum but the results must not be oversold. The indications are that
the government wants the process to proceed without delay. In June 1994,
the Treasury Board Ministers approved the vision and objectives set out
in the Blueprint for renewing government services to internal and external
clients.(18) A companion draft discussion
document also prepared by Treasury Board and entitled "The Human
Side to Re-Engineering," was amended to respond to the comments on
personnel issues. It is interesting to note that some provinces and other
countries have shown an interest in the Blueprint document.(19)
CIO is committed to providing $2 billion in savings and cost avoidance
in government departments over a five-year period. Mr. MacDonald, the
CIO, estimates that about $700 million could be saved by delivering programs
more efficiently and the remaining $1.3 billion could be cut from
administrative overheads, of which $800 million could be realized if departments
adopted shared systems, or at least chose solutions from a limited number
of approved options.(20)
of Future Services
examples of possible future services to be offered by the federal government
and given in the Blueprint are:
4:00 a.m. every morning, a desktop computer in a large federal office
building in Montreal automatically places a call to a computer across
the city. The purpose: to collect news that will be in the morning's
newspapers across the country and that will touch on areas of importance
to the department's minister and senior executives. By 6:30 a.m.,
the information is available on the department's Executive Information
System, by opening an electronic window. Meanwhile, down the hall,
another computer is preparing to place an electronic data interchange
(EDI) order to restock the department's central office supplies.
The order includes all the information needed to complete the transaction,
including payment on confirmation of receipt the next day..... Other
examples of services that could be delivered in this scenario: payroll
and deductions (such as direct deposit of pay),...(21)
of having to go to an employment centre in another part of town,
a client visits an electronic kiosk at a nearby shopping centre.
Using a "smart card" issued by the government, he peruses
jobs that seem to match his computerized skill profile. A touch
on an icon on the kiosk screen produces a print-out of local jobs
that seem promising. Another touch on the screen provides a just-released
schedule of new training courses at a local high school. He decides
to apply for one course on the spot and, again using his individualized
smart card, obtains almost instant approval from the government
and from the high school. It's just like using a bank machine, he
thinks, as he signs off.(22)
businesswoman takes the elevator down to the main floor in her office
building in Saskatoon...she decides to stop in the local government
business service centre... Her partner ... is wondering whether
it would be worthwhile to try to develop some foreign sales for
their recently patented polymer building panels. But neither one
knows where to start.... she's directed towards ...the building
material specialist at the National Research Council in Ottawa...
Two hours later, a three-page fax arrives...it lists four upcoming
trade shows featuring new external building materials...a print-out
from a Canadian commercial database and a two-day-old United Nations
(UN) Request for Proposal for innovative, light-weight, all-weather
building material for experimental housing for central Africa...
contact names, telephone and E-mail. ...three Canadian prefabricated
building companies which have all established records selling abroad.
A marginal note from a trade official in Tokyo confirms that the
embassy will keep the new supplier in mind in upcoming discussions
on joint Canada-Japan cooperation on new uses of polymer building
materials for the Japanese housing market.(23)
of these illustrations highlights ease of access to a wide range of government
services and information. Some of the services imply a 24-hour, seven-days-a-week
HOW THE GOVERNMENT HOPES TO MAKE IT HAPPEN
government has prepared a draft implementation plan and last fall began
implementation. The theme of the plan can best be summarized as "quit
studying the problems; get on with it." In a presentation entitled
"Implementing the Blueprint," presented at Professional Development
Forum held in Ottawa, 27 October 1994, Bernie Gorman, Executive Director,
Information Management, Systems and Technology, Treasury Board, described
this stage of the process.
government recognizes some of the problems it must overcome to attain
the desired results.
and Privacy: Might service levels actually go down for some clients?
Are privacy and information sharing incompatible?
Management: How can we mitigate the negative effects of IT on
the public service? How are we to plan the training and redeployment?
Do we need to change management tools and skills?
How are we to manage the "single windows" when different
departments, different levels of government, etc. may be involved?
How are we to evaluate shared solutions and services? Where are the
investment strategies for hard times? Is there more need for a government-wide
Issues: How will the infrastructure, be funded, managed and prioritized?
What standards should be used?
implementing the Blueprint, numerous parallel activities will have to
be coordinated. One of the critical activities will be getting flagship
projects going quickly in each of three action areas to set the tone and
direction and to demonstrate their feasibility. The plan is to nurture
departmental re-engineering initiatives since this is where much of the
best work is being done.
major goal is to identify and resolve problems of horizontal implementation
in government-wide common services. This is particularly important since
some of the major savings anticipated are related to common services.
It will also be essential to accelerate the building of the government-wide
infrastructure needed to bring about many of the improvements.
idea of using partnerships with industry, other levels of government and
other federal departments and agencies to effect these changes remains
important, but has proven to be more challenging to implement than was
B. Areas of Action
government plan has three areas of action. The first is to bring information
to Canadians as clients; this involves supporting innovative program delivery.
The second area is modernization of the government's internal administration.
The last area is creation of a knowledge network (the government's portion
of the Canadian Information Highway).
1. Bringing the Information
Age to Canadians
objectives are: to bring service and information efficiently to the public;
to integrate related information and services and deliver them together;
to streamline service delivery across departments and simplify the way
the public must relate to government; to enhance the information available
to Canadian businesses to help them compete; and to begin the information
revolution within the government.
are some flagship projects related to service to Canadians that are under
way or being considered:
delivery of government information and services. Various pilots,
including interactive TV, are investigating the public response
to such service.
shopping, such as the Canadian Business Service Centres, Social
Service Centres and InfoCentres. The Canadian Business Service Centres
were set up with the provinces to allow a single point access for
business people to receive services and information from a wide
range of federal and provincial (and sometimes municipal) agencies.
A database on trade opportunities is now available at some of these
centres. Social Service Centres have been set up in several major
cities (e.g., Toronto, Winnipeg, Vancouver, Montreal) and are sponsored
federally by Human Resources Canada. InfoCentres were established
several years ago with over 250 kiosks in Canada Employment Centres,
Revenue Canada offices, and the Income Security Program centres
across Canada. The information provided is organized by subject
rather than department.
Services. A system providing electronic management and delivery
of strategic information for decision makers in industry is being
led by Industry Canada.
Post and the government are collaborating on developing the Address
Change Management system to improve the delivery of government services
and information by mail.
is also being used to reduce the government's information demands
2. Modernizing the
Government's Internal Administration
objectives in this area are to rationalize processes and systems across
administrative functions and departments and thus improve efficiency and
effectiveness; improve administrative support to program delivery; and
reduce overlap and duplication so as to lower the cost of government administration.
are some flagship projects related to government administration that are
planned or underway:
shared support services (LSSS) to help reduce costs to all departments.
Public servants at all levels are participating in over 300 projects
for sharing local area networks (LAN), security services, mail services,
common computerized administrative systems, including the initial
purchase, on-going maintenance and future upgrades, across the departments.
This is expected to save $800 million over five years.
use of electronic media monitoring whereby newspapers are clipped
with electronic scissors and a spring board for electronic management
to enable distribution of broader strategic information across government
and thus enhance decision-making.
redesign of the procurement and payment systems to co-ordinate these
two important and related processes.
redesign of the pay and benefits system so as to improve delivery
of government compensation services.
3. Creating an Electronic
objective in this area is to create a "virtual network" between
departments across Canada, and eventually with client groups outside the
government, for electronic delivery of both services and information.
This "virtual network" will become the government's portion
of the developing Information Highway. Other objectives are to provide
staff with access to internal and external information databases and make
specialized network services, common support, and information services
available on an enterprise-wide basis, thereby achieving economies of
are some flagship projects related to the government infrastructure:
Government Enterprise Network (the infrastructure for the federal
government's equivalent of an information highway) is being planned
for early implementation.
government knowledge infrastructure is being developed that will
allow the sharing of strategic information for operations and decision-making
across departments and across the country.
IMPACT ON CANADIANS
federal government exists to serve the Canadian public through programs
in such areas as agriculture, citizenship and culture, education and training,
employment and labour, the environment, foreign affairs, health and safety,
immigration, international trade, industrial development, national defence,
natural resources, parks and recreation, public infrastructure, public
information, regulated utilities, security and protection, social assistance,
and taxation. The present approach to renewing government services through
IT is aimed mainly at improving current services.
A. Potential Benefits
client-oriented proposals outlined in the Blueprint should generate numerous
benefits for Canadians, in addition to the obvious savings in resources.
They should reduce the time spent by the public in obtaining access to
government data and services, and should also improve these data and services.
and Canadian businesses can expect to have immediate access to government
services virtually anywhere in Canada, rather than having to go through
numerous departments or agencies. Some of the services offered should
be available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, while others would be
available during working hours around the country.
servants responding to Canadians are likely to be given increased authority,
once services are re-engineered to use IT; this should result in prompter
responses. As well, those serving the public directly should have greater
flexibility in applying regulations to respond to exceptional circumstances.
and corporate information could be integrated throughout the government
so that individuals and businesses would need to provide basic information
only once, no matter how many requests they made for government service.
Similarly, delivery of numerous government services, such as old age security,
veterans' benefits and unemployment insurance, could be merged. Thus,
authorized government employees would be able to offer a more complete
and customized range of services and advice.
is an increasing awareness of the interdependency of all government programs.
For example, discussions have already been held on redesigning the delivery
of unemployment insurance in response to the need to integrate labour
training and retraining. As well, provincial governments recognize the
links between unemployment insurance and provincial welfare programs.
Although not discussed in the Blueprint, the next phase of integration
in the technological delivery of services and programs would involve both
the federal and provincial governments so as to permit delivery of the
full range of government services. Ideally, this integration could eventually
extend to the municipal level.
B. Potential Pitfalls
planned transformation of the federal government will have to avoid several
major pitfalls, as the Blueprint discusses. Due regard to privacy and
security issues will be essential; there would have to be assurances that
information collected by law for one purpose would not inadvertently be
used for others. The potential for misuse and abuse of the available information
on Canadians and Canadian business will always be present and, even with
built-in safeguards, will require further control measures or security
auditing. Both the CIO and the Canadian Privacy Commissioner, Bruce Phillips,
have discussed this issue and the CIO suggests that suitable safeguards
should be possible.(25)
of the public may not be aware of what personal details are contained
in government files; moreover some of the details may not be accurate
and the creation and maintenance of government-wide common files on citizens
could easily perpetuate such errors. A possible safety mechanism might
be to ask all Canadians to verify a printout of their personal data held
in government files.
Canadian Privacy Commissioner presented some general rules for privacy
in relation to informatics at the Professional Development Forum held
in Ottawa in October 1994. Some of these rules are:
must be specifically recognized;
must be governed by a code (in law);
must control the personal information they allow to be transmitted
must receive only the minimum information to accomplish the task;
providers must not disclose information without the informed consent
of the individual involved;
on individual transactions must be governed by a code;
must be protected (possibly by encryption);
must be no charge to individuals for privacy protection or to access
their personal information in government files; and
independent oversight body must be in place to review privacy and
ensure that it is respected.
the re-engineering process described in the Blueprint is supposed to be
geared to the client, fiscal pressures are currently so strong that redesigned
services run the risk of being more oriented towards cost savings.
IMPACT ON PUBLIC
government's Blueprint recognizes that the successful implementation of
service renewal will hinge on public servants. Although some changes will
offer potential benefits for government employees, others may not be welcomed.
re-engineering its services, the government will have to: help the public
service workforce make the transition to the new culture; assess the composition
and competency of the workforce; renew training and development; establish
open communication and consultation; and empower employees, while giving
them greater accountability. It may prove difficult to promote recognition
of change as a positive force and to ensure that change is effected with
sensitivity to the needs of both those within the organization and the
clients outside it.
full benefits from expanded use of IT and the percentage of employees
likely to receive them remain to be seen. The following advantages are
those who manage programs and support functions, the integrated
use of IT will speed service delivery and allow more time to deal
with clients' needs.
renewal will automate mundane activities and reduce central controls
or build them into systems supporting service renewal. New and enhanced
skills will be required for an information-based operation focusing
on service to clients. These changes should result in job enrichment,
increased job satisfaction and potentially greater financial benefits
employees will provide them with greater authority and flexibility
in serving their clients (greater value-added service). These additional
responsibilities could result in a higher job level and a corresponding
possible benefit of re-engineering will be telecommuting. This will
offer some employees a greater level of flexibility and reduce some
of the costs associated with travelling to work.
in general have a tendency to resist change and massive change is implied
in the re-engineering of the government. The most obvious negative impacts
on public servants will be job change and job loss.
area likely to be subjected to cuts is administrative services support;
a government-wide support system using IT will substantially reduce the
number of employees required in that area.
will also affect working hours. Services that are independent of time
and location may require employees to work split shifts, so that staff
are available to deal with client needs from the start of business on
the east coast to the end of business on the west. Selected services offering
primarily automated response systems and available 24-hours-a-day and
seven-days-a-week may require resource persons to be on call to respond
to exceptional cases.
government exists to serve the public and it is under pressure from taxpayers
to provide better service with diminishing resources. For several years,
the government has been attempting to use information technology to reduce
the cost of its operations and in March 1994 it began a major initiative
to renew government services by fully exploiting IT. The eventual result
of this initiative should be improved service to both the Canadian public
and Canadian business, though the necessary adjustment to changes will
present significant challenges.
possible impacts of such exploitation within the federal government are
immense. The process will involve public servants in a great deal of change,
some of which may be traumatic. The technical aspect of the task is the
least difficult, particularly if change is implemented in stages, rather
than all at once. Altering the attitude of public servants towards change
and encouraging more sensitivity to client needs will be more difficult,
particularly given the current poor morale within the public service as
result of the fiscal climate, job insecurity and frozen benefit packages.
What is needed is a balanced policy that fully considers the likely effects
on people as it implements massive technological innovation.
(1) Treasury Board
of Canada Secretariat, "Blueprint for Renewing Government Services
Using Information Technology," March 1994.
(2) Treasury Board of Canada, "Re-Engineering
Government," News Release, 22 March 1994.
(3) Treasury Board Canada, "Enhancing Services
through the Innovative Use of Information and Technology," 1993.
(5) Treasury Board of Canada, Communications
and Coordination Directorate, "A Review and Analysis of Information
Technology Expenditure Trends in the Canadian Federal Government 1986-1992,"
(6) Auditor General of Canada, 1994 Annual
Report, Volume 5, Chapter 8, p. 8-7.
(7) "A Review and Analysis of Information
Technology Expenditure Trends..." (1993).
(9) "Enhancing Services..." (1993).
(11) Auditor General 1994, Volume 5 Chapter
(12) "Enhancing Services..." (1993).
(13) "Pay and Benefits: Re-engineering
Project," IT: The People Challenge Newsletter, Volume 2, No.
2, Fall 1994.
(14) Bernie Gorman, "Implementing the
Blueprint," Information Management, Systems and Technology, Treasury
Board, presented at the Professional Development Forum, Ottawa, 27 October
(15) "Blueprint for Renewing Government
Services Using Information Technology" (1994), p. iii.
(16) Andy MacDonald, "The Blueprint:
An Update," IT: The People Challenge Newsletter, Volume 2,
No. 2, Fall 1994.
(17) Gorman (1994).
(18) MacDonald (1994).
(20) Auditor General 1994, Volume 5 Chapter
(21) "Blueprint for Renewing Government
Services Using Information Technology" (1994), p. 14.
(22) Ibid., p. 16.
(23) Ibid., p. 19.
(24) "Blueprint Report Card, An Interview
with Andy Macdonald," HUM The Government Computer Magazine,
February 1995, p. 30.
(25) Bruce Phillips, Canadian Privacy Commissioner,
"Naked on the Information Highway: Privacy in the Electronic Delivery
of Government Services," presented at the Professional Development
Forum in Ottawa, 25 October 1994.