Statistics Canada - Statistique Canada

A one-day snapshot of inmates in Canada's adult correctional facilities


The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics (CCJS), in collaboration with federal and provincial/territorial corrections authorities, conducted a census of inmates in all adult correctional facilities in Canada on October 5th, 1996. This is the first time that a Snapshot of all adult inmates in Canada has been taken. The purpose of the project was to provide more detailed information on the make-up of inmate populations in Canada in order to answer questions such as who is incarcerated, where, and why.

In Canada, the responsibility for housing offenders sentenced to a term of incarceration is shared between the federal and the provincial/territorial governments. Correctional Service Canada is responsible for offenders sentenced to two or more years. Provincial/territorial corrections are responsible for offenders who receive custodial sentences of less than two years and for housing persons charged with offences who have been "remanded" to custody while awaiting trial.

The objectives of the Snapshot were to: assess populations in adult federal and provincial/ territorial correctional facilities; answer questions about: who is incarcerated, where, and why; supplement national corrections data currently available; and to look specifically at risk and need profiles of inmates within and across jurisdictions.

The study describes all inmates who were "on-register" in federal and provincial/territorial adult facilities at midnight on Saturday, October 5th, 1996. The on-register population refers to the number of inmates who have been placed in a facility to serve their sentence (may not actually be in the facility on Snapshot day).

The survey covered various aspects of corrections: facilities data - type of facility, operational capacity, security level, special features of facility; characteristics of individual inmates - personal characteristics and background (e.g., age, marital status, level of education); and sentence, offence and criminal history; security issues and accommodation; and risk and needs profile.

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Appendix (PDF - 91K)
Introduction (PDF - 43K)
Chapter 14 (PDF - 89K)
Chapter 13 (PDF - 101K)
Chapter 12 (PDF - 85K)
Chapter 11 (PDF - 74K)
Chapter 10 (PDF - 71K)
Chapter 9 (PDF - 69K)
Chapter 8 (PDF - 104K)
Chapter 7 (PDF - 90K)
Chapter 6 (PDF - 68K)
Chapter 5 (PDF - 99K)
Chapter 4 (PDF - 103K)
Chapter 3 (PDF - 81K)
Chapter 2 (PDF - 101K)
Chapter 1 (PDF - 149K)
Entire Document (PDF - 1345K)